May 01, 2014



English Essay on "Democracy"

In ancient times and middle ages, democracy was considered to be a form of government but in modem times it is not only a form of government but also a particular social organization according to the comments of C.D. Bums. As a form of government 1-lerodotus defines it as a government in which the ruling power of a state is legally vested, not in any particular class or classes but in the members of the community as a whole. Abraham Lincon defines it as a government of the people, by the people and for the people. Burns cons idlers democracy as a society in which every man ‘contributes some thought and feeling to the common life. To Sir Stafford Cripps democracy is a system of government in which every adult citizen is equally free to express his views and desires upon all subjects in whatever way he wishes and to influence the majority of his fellow citizens to decide according to those views.
R.H. Soltau points out four implications of democracy. Firstly it believes that truth will come out of the clash of opinion with opinion, that every Citizen may have something of value to contribute and must not be hindered in bringing it forward. Secondly, the state has no final truth to establish, and infallibility has no place in politics. Thirdly, the political right must be the same for all. Forcibly democracy is inseparable from a belief in methods of peaceful persuasion, in ultimate reasonableness of man and his response to rational
Democracy is of two types. The direct democracy is the type of government in which citizens directly sit in the assembly and participate in the affairs of the government. The indirect democracy is the type of government in which citizens are asked to elect their representatives to run the government on their behalf. Direct democracy was suitable for the small city states of ancient Greece only. Modern indirect democracy has, however, adopted certain methods of direct democracy which are termed as Initiative, Referendum and Recall. In initiative a certain number of votes may, by petition, compel the legislature to consider a particular proposal. In referendum all the citizens are required to vote on a certain issue and also to approve or disapprove a certain bill already passed by the legislature. In recall a certain number of electors compel a representative, by petition, to resign or submit to reselection.
Democracy has many virtues and it’s considered to be the best sort of government on the following grounds. Firstly, it is the only form of government in which those who exercise public authority can be subjected to the control of those in whose interest they are chosen to govern. Secondly, since in democracy every person is able to stand up for he rights and interests of the individual can be best safeguarded. Thirdly, in democracy the general prosperity attains a higher degree and is mare widely diffused in proportion to the around and variety of personal energies enlisted in promoting it. Fourthly. by allowing people to share in its administration, democracy elevates the masses of people, develops their faculties, stimulates interest among them in public affairs and strengthens their patriotism. Fifthly, since democracy rests on the consent of people and the principle of equality, it is more immune against revolution in comparison to other forms of government. Sixthly it serves as a training school for citizens. to Burns all government is a method of education but the best education is self education which is provided by democracy.
Democracy has its defects also. Firstly, it attaches undue importance to quantity rather than quality. According to Allama Iqbal, in democracy men are counted and not weighed. So it puts a stupid citizen and a wise statesman on the same footing. Secondly, it is the government by the poorest , the most ignorant and the most incapable who are necessarily numerous. Thirdly, according to Burns, democracy is the “cult of impotence” which underestimates the difficulty of government and overestimates the capacity of the common man. Fourthly, democracy is in-stable as h is easy to change the government frequently, and as such it is impossible to continue a policy. Fifthly, it is a breeding ground for agitators, flatterers, bosses and demagogues. Sixthly, being the rule of ignorant it does not appreciate the utility of intellectual growth and as such is indifferent to the growth of arts, science and literature.
There are many other grave defects in democracy. Lucky thinks that corrupt ion is effective in democracy and reaches down to all classes of people. It is also very wasteful as general voters are not found careful to the public purse. Moreover, the candidates spend huge sums in their campaign. Some critics say that democracy attempts at doing too much resulting only in too much legislation and less accomplishment. It also attempts to do only vote catching things. To Lecky it ensures neither better government, nor greater liberty. Prickliness and emotionalism being two defects of mob are the defects of democracy also. The tremendous power behind a democratic government makes it all the more dangerous if it becomes intolerant. To Baldwin democracy is two years behind dictatorship for in emergency prompt action is needed which is not possible in democracy because it is stow at a decision and has to consider too many interests.

No comments:

Post a Comment