March 06, 2014

Secularism And Modernism

Essay : [Secularism And Modernism]

English Essay on "Secularism And Modernism"

Secularism And Modernism

Secularism is defined as a social system in a society where diverse elements of population develop a common outlook relegation to background their specific characteristics of tradition, religion, region and history. Secularism is based on the principle of rational approach to social and national problems of society. The basic principle of, secularism, nationalism, as opposed to obscurantism, of self-reliant socialist development of Indian society, was first introduced in India Jawaharlal Nehru in the post -independence era. It was with great difficulty that the reactionary forces opposed to these progressive principles were reconciled.

India is inhabited by followers of various religions, the Hindus, the Muslims, the Sikhs, the Anglo-Indians, the Parsis, the Zarastrians, the Buddhists and numerous others. According to American CIA official hand book, 1996 edition, there are 80 percent Hindus, 14 percent Muslims, 2.4 percent Christians, 2 percent Sikh, 0.7 percent Buddhists, 0.5 percent Jains and 0.4 percent others in India. Whereas Hindus are in majority, the members of all communities are in minority. The Muslims constitute the largest 'single minority. Friction between Hindus and Muslims during the pre independence period was largely the outcome of the British, who followed the policy of Divide and Rule. This friction ultimately led to the partition of the country in two parts -India and Pakistan. While many Muslims left India for Pakistan, millions of them were persuaded to stay on in India and were assured security of life, religion, and property. In Pakistan on the other hand, the Hindus were deprived of all their property in certain areas. A large number of such people settle down in India and gave rise to the problem of Hindu. Muslim communalism in the past independence period.

As for as the other minority communities are concerned, they have thrown their lot with the mainstream of Indian Nationalism and do not pore and threat to the peace of their country. Anglo Indian community has been assured adequate protection by the India constitution.

At present The United Front government at Delhi represents a deeply felt distrust and rejection of the potentially destructive thrust of Hindutva, as one had occasion to access the Deve Gowda government despite its obvious weakness. That confers on UF government a value and moral authority that goes beyond the size of its parliamentary support.( This government therefore deserves to be treated with respect. From a strictly Pakistani point of view, substantial business can be transacted with it. It can take for reaching decisions because of its moral authority. However, the question about its survivability persists. There are hopes, indeed fairly realistic hopes, but it probably would survive because it represents a loose coalition of deeply felt urges and ideas of secularists in all parties that have been frightened by the dangerous potential of Hindutva, though they seem unable to work in a durable condition.

The political imperative for the government in New Delhi is that the forces of secularism should be in power. All secularists in India and abroad are willing to attach importance to the survival of the Deve Gowda government and it is from that view point, two biggest secular parties BSP (Bahujan Samaj Party) and SP (Samajnadi Party) passes conventional wisdom in India, and these parties are treated as secular, though, there are long, term questions about their philosophical credentials.

In his presidential address at the 53rd session of the Indian National Congress at Ramgarh in Bihar, on 4th March 1940, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad said, "Islam has, now as great a claim on the soil of India as Hindustan. If Hindustan has been the religion of the people for several thousand years, Islam has been their religion for a thousand years. This joint wealth is the heritage of our common nationality and we do not want to leave it and go back to the times when this joint life hand not begun. If there are any Hindus amongst us who desire to bring back the Hindu life of a thousand years ago and more, they dream and such dreams are vain fantasies.

While staying in Geneva with his ailing wife, Nehru wrote to his friend Syed Mahmud in 1926, "We seem to have been caught in a whirlpool a mutual hatred, and we go round and round, and down into the abyss ... " Nehru further wrote, "to think that the only remedy is to scotch our so called religion and secularize our intelligentsia, -, religion in India will kill that country and its people if it is .not subdued. As soon as we shed our religion, we shall behave better,"

In their idealism, the two leaders ignored the harsh realities on the ground. Already, in the caste ridden environment, secular vision was collapsing. Even human values were narrowing. In the 19th century, Bengali literature propagated Muslims under tempestuous epithets. Many Hindu writers referred Muslims as foreigners. This led to the emergence of Hindustan at the turn of century as political movement for the upper caste domination.

Proclaiming socialism and secularism, the founding fathers of the Indian constitution, had an expensive vision of the future. But the creeping menace of Hindutva that India Could only be a Hindu nation is threatening the concept of secularism. A genuine secular society introduces diversity and not uniformity. The Hindutva's distaste diversity, multiplicity, and plurality have been expressed in many ways and forms.( As members of a closed society, based on birth and blood, the Hindus have made mosques, and Muslims writers, painters, dramatists, novelists etc; their special targets.

On December 6, 1992, there was darkness at noon in the sovereign socialist secular democratic Republic of India. The sun of India secularism was totally eclipsed by a huge crowd of Virhua Hindu Parishad, Bajrang Oal, RSS and the BJP. Dressed in robes of saffron and crimson, with an arrogant contempt for and deep seated hostility towards Muslims, they demolished the Babri Masjid.

Secularism and modernism are the gateway to plenty: prosperity and peace in the sub continent, but while meeting each other of Hindus and Muslims in educated or religious societies, Hindus generally say to their Muslim friends "YA YAVAN". The word "YAVAN" was used for Greeks, but after the Hindu revival in 19th century, Muslims are contemptuously) referred to as 'Yavan', it has now been reserved for Muslim. A 'Yavan' is a foreigner and an outsider Verily, a secular Indian state in an illusion.

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