April 25, 2014

The Hazards of Radiation

The Hazards of Radiation

English Essay on "The Hazards of Radiation"

It is own to all that exposure to radiation from radioactive sources has harmful and fatal effects on our body and exposure beyond a certain limit brings death. It is not necessary that the fatal amount of radiation must Come in one exposure, for several small doses, received over a long period of time, may also eventually lead to death provided it exceeds the safety limit. It is no secret that both Marie Curie and Enricco Fermi died as a result of over exposure to radiation.
There are three factors that determine the extent of hazards to us. The most important of the three factors is the nature of radiation. Alpha particles are less hazardous because they are unable to penetrate the outer layers of the skin. However if the source enters the body, alpha particles become very hazardous. Beta particles are more penetrating and most of the, energy is absorbed by surface tissues. So they are more hazardous than alpha particles. Gamma particles are the most dangerous of the three. They penetrate deep into the body.4essay.blogspot.com
The most susceptible parts of the body to radiation are reproductive organs, blood farming organs such as liver and to a small extent the eyes. But other organs can also be damaged by radiation. It causes immediate damage to tissues and according to dose it may because radiation bums, radiation sickness and in extreme cases death. Delayed effects of radiation are Leukemia and cataracts which appear long after exposure to radiation. Hereditary defects may also be present in succeeding generation due to genetic damage. The hands, forearms, feet and ankles are organs which are less affected by radiation.
The amount of dose received is also important. The maximum safe limit dose per person working in nuclear power stations is 5 rems per year. The safe limit dose for different types of radiation is different.
The above hazards caution us to handle radioactive substances with great precaution. It is dangerous to pick up a high radioactive substance with bare hands or to carry it in pocket. Such substances must be stored in a thick lead container. Lead absorbs the radiation and does not allow it to come out. Thick blocks of lead, iron and high density concrete are also important shields. In research centers, radioactive substances should be handled by mechanical hands operated by remote control. The operator must stand behind a thick wall of lead or concrete while handling the radioactive substances. Care must be taken to ensure that the doses of radiation for workers in no way, exceeds the safe limit. Too much exposure to x-rays is also dangerous and the doctors should not ask their patients to be x-rayed too frequently.

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