March 30, 2014


Essay : [Somalia]

English Essay on "Somalia"


Somalia is located on the horn of Africa in East African, bordering the northwestern Indian ocean, south of the Arabian Peninsula. Topographically, there are four natural divisions; the Guhan, the northern highlands, the ago, including the Mudug Plain, and the Somali Plateau, including the hand. In general, there is only limited contrast among these regions.
The northern coastal plains, which stretch from the Gulf of Tadjoura along the Gulf of Aden into Mijirtein region, are known as Guban (burned land) from its semi-arid and parched condition. Island this coasted strip gives way to the rugged mountain ranges that extend from Ethiopia to the tip of the Horn at cape Guardafui, the eastern most point of Africa. This range contains the country's highest point, Surud Ad (2408 meters, 7900 ft).
Southern half' of boundary with Ethiopia is a Provisional Administrative line; territorial dispute with Ethiopia over the Ogaden.
The United Nations in 1949 approved eventual creation of Somalia as a sovereign state, and. in 1950 Italy took over the trusteeship held by Great Britain since world War II.
Britains Somaliland was formed in the 19th century in the NW. Britain gave it independence on 26Ul June 1960; on July first it joined with the former Italian part to create the independent Somali Republic.
On October 21, 1969 a Supreme Revolutionary Council seized power in bloodless coup, named a council of secretaries of state., and abolished the Assembly. In May 1970, several foreign companies were nationalized.
Somalia has laid claim to Ogaden, the huge eastern region of Ethiopia, peopled mostly by Somalis. Ethiopia battled Somali rebels in 1977. some 11,000 Cuban troops with Soviet arms defeated Somali army troops and ethnic Somali rebels in Ethiopia in 1978. As many as 1.5 million refugees entered Somalia. Guerrilla fighting in Ogaden continued until 1988, when a peace agreement was reached with Ethiopia.
Twenty one years of one man rule ended in January 1991 with the tight of General Muhammad Siyad Barre from the capital. Fighting between rival factions caused 40,000 casualties in 1991 and 1992, and by mid 1992 the civil war, drought and banditry combined to produce a famine that threatened some 1.5 million people with starvation.( In July 1992, the UN Secretary General declared Somalia to be a country without a government.
In December 1992 the UN accepted a U.S. offer of troops in safeguard the delivery of food to the starving. The UN took central of the multinational relief effect from the U.S. May 4, 1993. While the operation helped alleviate the famine, efforts to reestablish order foundered, and there were significant U.S. and other casualties. The U.S. with drew in peace keeping forces on 25th March, 1994. When the last UN troops pulled out an 3rd March, 1995, Mogadishu still had no functioning government, and armed factions controlled different parts of the country.
General Mohammad Farah Aideed's main rival in Mogadishu was Ali Mahdi Muhammad, a Mogadishu businessman Mogadishu while Aideed's forces controlled the more strategic southern quarters of the' capital. Aideed's fiefdom included the docks on the sea and the airport. Aideed and Ali Mahdi were bath members of the United Somali Congress and of the Hawiye clan that prevailed in Mogadishu, but Aideed belonged to the Habar-Gedir subclan and Ali Mahdi to the Abgal subclan. The government of Djibouti, Egypt and Italy brokered a conference in May 1991 in Djibouti, at which Ali Mahdi declared himself President of Somalia and appointed a cabinet. But Aideed, who had been elected party chairman at a conference of the United Somali Congress, boycotted theDjibouti meeting against him.
Radio Mogadishu controlled by Aideed, began a hate campaign, lambasting the U. N, and the United' States as aggressors intent on colonizing Somalia and turning it 'back into trusteeship. The Radio exhorted Somalis to recall a glorious past when they resisted foreign domination, An angry U, N. staff drew up plans to shut down the radio if it kept such attacks On June 5, Pakistani Peace Keepers made what they called a routine inspection of five sites where Aideed's militia had agreed to start weapons, Aideed' s militiamen mingled in the crowds, kept behind women and children, and then, fired at the U. N, peace keeper.( Pakistani Units were ambushed in other areas of the city. The fury of the Aideed weaponry surprised the L.N. At the end of the day, twenty four Pakistani were dead and fifty seven injured. Another six were captured, one of them dying in detention.
The world seemed ready to forget Somalia in a few minutes, but the sacrifices of Pakistani army soldiers in Somaha intervention for peace will not be forgotten.

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