March 30, 2014

Nationalism vs Internationalism

Essay : [Nationalism Vs Internationalism]

English Essay on "Nationalism Vs Internationalism"

Nationalism Vs Internationalism

The term nation is derived from the Latin word 'nation' which means birth or race. The dictionary meaning of nation is 'the population of a state originating from a common race'. In modern political terminology, however, the word 'nation' has many more qualifications than mere racial affinity. It is like a territorial of community with historical and sociological bond. Internationalism as a concept, seeks to reconcile national interests with the larger interests of other peoples.
According to Carleton, a nation is "any group of persons who speak a common language, who cherish common historical tradition and who constitute or think they constitute a distinct cultural society in which among other factors, religion and politics may have played important though not necessarily continuous roles".
Nationality is some what different from a nation. ‘Nation’ implies political independence; while "nationality" is a non-political concept. A nationality has no territorial limitations. It can exist different sovereign states or countries. It carries a feeling of psychological affinities and cultural homogeneity. Nationality means a group of people who are emotionally and psychologically bound together by common historical ties. Lord Bryce defines nationality as “a population held together by certain ties, as for example, language and literature, ideas, customs, and tradition, in such a way as to feel in itself a coherent unity distinct from other population similarly held together by like ties of their own, “The subjective sentiments and feelings which creates unity are common between a nation and a nationality; however a nation has the characteristics of political unity and sovereignty which are not essential in a nationality.( A nationality may develop into a nation as and when it acquires sovereignty in a given area. A nationality has an individuality of its own and may demand the right of self-determination if it feels confident of its strong national sentiments and carries a special spirit of oneness, or common consciousness or unity founded on political historical, racial, religious, linguistic and other factors that go to make a state.
The term nationalism is different from both nation and nationality. Nationalism is the spiritual force which holds a nation in a defined territory together for the maintenance of its general arid special rights against arbitrary powers within the state and preservation of its independence against aggression from outside. It implies spirit of unity or common consciousness among the people which brings and holds them together, and which makes them achieve common objectives or suffer and even sacrifice their lives in the interests or security of the nation. Nationalism further means a man’s spiritual attachment to one’s country. People who carry the feelings of nationalism are deeply attached to their nation in the same way as they may be attached to their religion. The country is frequently addressed and loved as motherland’ or ‘fatherland’.
The factors which help the growth of nationalism may be common geographical historical, political, cultural, racial, religious economic and linguistic interest which needs watching for development and which create, promote and sustain national feelings. The most important factor of national feeling is geographical unity. It is this unity which exhibits and promotes the pride of possession of a common land, which may be worshipped as a ‘motherland’ or fatherland’. Without a sense of pride for a coveted ‘homeland’ it becomes difficult to develop real national feelings. Geographical unity arouses common interests in many walks of life, economic, political, social, cultural and educational problems. The problems open up new variegated understandings and cooperation among the people. People who live together on a common land for a considerably long period devise new ways of living, working and developing common aims, ideas and aspirations.
One significant factor that generates, promotes, and vitalizes smoother national feeling is the common historical traditions of the people. Such historical traditions are reared on memories of suffering endured, and victories won in common expressed in sang and legend, in the dear names of great personalities that seem to embody in themselves the character and ideals of the nation, in the names also of sacred places wherein national memory is enshrined.
Nationalism has also common cultural traits signifying unity of ideas and ideals. Unity of culture is based on common customs and traditions, common manners and folklore and common tastes in art and literature. The overall impact is one of a certain dominant view with its common rights and responsibilities to usher in a better standard of life for the fellow citizens.
Common race is also a unifying force. It binds the hearts of the people owing to common ancestry. It helps greatly in promoting and sustaining the national spirits. In modern states toleration’s of many religions prevails as religious fanaticism very often negates the growth of nationalism. Religious beliefs have become a personal affair in US, Britain, China and Russia, it hardly touches the national life of the people. In India, secularization of nationality is letting people enjoy their respective religious beliefs and practices without hindrance.
Common economic interest is the most patient factor contributing to the promotion of nationalism. The desire to raise the standard of living and to make life comfortable, interesting and useful, enables the citizens, without considerations of race, caste, creed or religion to help the state in improving the economy of the country in all directions.( Looking after his personal economic interests, each individual strives his best to increase production in agriculture and industry and facilitate trade and commerce. Members of varying religious denominations work shoulder to shoulder to fulfill their common economic interests. This greatly helps and binding the people together in the well of nationalism.
Language also plays of vital role in binding people together and reading consciousness among them as a nation. A common language enables the people to project common ideals, sentiments and feelings, set L the common standards of morality, manners and justice and to conserve historical traditions so as to generate a common national psychology.
Nationalism is conceived as a positive feature because of the following reasons:
1. It fosters love for one’s own motherland or father land.
2. It removes the sense of selfishness, narrowness. The nation thus makes progress in every direction.
3. It Inspires deeds of heroines and sacrifice among the people for the achievement of common ideas.
4. It fosters a healthy spirit of fellow felling among people and rends to develop in them a strong desire to improve their own lot and that of their brethren living in the country.
5. It helps preserve Unity amidst diversity by integrating diverse elements into a common nation through process of assimilation.
6. It enables the people to preserve a united front at the time of need to defend national sovereignty.
There is also a negative side to nationalism. It becomes occasionally visible with its ugly manifestations, when it takes the form of aggressive nationalism. Aggressive nationalism is never healthy as it generates intolerance and hatred for other nations. There is evidence in history to show that it was the aggressive national spirit among the French and the Germans which were responsible for frequent wars between the two nations. Aggressive nationalism is always a threat to the welfare of other nations.
We may sum up the concept of nationalism with Alfred Dc Grazia’ s observation. “Nationalism Combines love of country and suspiciousness of foreigners comes from the belief that foreigners do not share each value in the same strength. The first shared value is the love of familiar places, the neighborhood the lands, the hands, the valleys and the mountains, all of the surroundings that one laves because they have been part of oneself from infancy.”
In the process of harmonization and unification of various structural components of the nation. Integration involves acceptance of certain values by most sections of the population as common with different institutions and agencies in the society and tend to preserve and promote.
The objective of integration is maintenance and active relationship between these structural components. It not only keeps the nation going but also imparts a meaning and purpose to the life of the individuals so that they feel conscious of being a part of a comprehensible and harmonious national existence. Family sanction, sex relation, care of the children, protection and education and recreation of family members, adherence to religious institutions, all help to develop a sense of relationship with spiritual tones and devotion to national concepts.
Modern nations are open to different races, sects, tribes and beliefs. They provide for secularization of different groups and their ultimate integration.
Integration is the consequence of differentiation and specialization. Modern states have unity in diversity. Internationalism is the feeling that an individual carries of not only being a citizen of his state but also that of the whole universe. Internationalism is thus a concept which demands of the various nations of the world to give up their conflicting and antagonistic separate nationalist ambitions and designs and so cooperate with one another in all fields of activity, to thereby preserve peace in the world.( Internationalism demands that no nation in the world should be content with its own good but should aim at a policy of ‘live and help other to live’. It should be the policy of every nation to co-ordinate its own good with that of others, our love should not be restricted to the territorial borders of the state, of which we are members, but should be so extended as to embrace the whole world.
There is nothing inconsistent loves his motherland or fatherland and also loves the whole of mankind. In fact, the people of his own country constitute only a part of mind kind, therefore, lave of one’s own nation and its citizens strive for coming up to advancement in social and economic fields at the same time, there is no reason to feel jealous of other nations if they also progress in the same direction at the same or better speed.
Sound nationalism at the present stage of human development at least, is in many ways a prelude to sound internationalism. A writer has rightly put it, “Nationality is the necessary link between man and humanity”.
Internationalism seeks to reconcile national interest with the larger interests of other peoples. If nations carry a balanced outlook and a healthy regard for the rights and interest of other peoples there would grow fruitful international cooperation. Internationalism is the system of thought designed to promote peaceful cooperation. Whatever promotes intercourse between various people is a contribution to internationalism. Intermittent wars occasionally shake the idea and often put the clock back.
The organization of fruitful international cooperation requires firstly foundation of a common set of principles of harmonizing and balancing of diverse national interests. The feeling of international co-operation needs to be translated into institutional framework like that of the United Nation. It is only by working together that suspicion and distrust can be overcome and an atmosphere of mutual understanding created.
Nationalism and internationalism used to be considered as conflicting concepts in traditional politics but modern political scientists regard them as mutually compatible and complementary concepts.

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