Passage # 1:
An important new industry, oil refining, grew after the Civil War. Crude oil, or petroleum – a dark, thick ooze from the earth – had been known for hundreds of years. But little use had ever been made of it. In the 1850’s Samuel M. Kier, a manufacturer in western Pennsylvania, began collecting the oil from local seepages and refining it into kerosene. Refining, like smelting, is a process of removing impurities from a raw material.
Kerosene was used to light lamps. It was a cheap substitute for whale oil, which was becoming harder to get. Soon there was a large demand for kerosene. People began to search for new supplies of petroleum.
1. What is the best title for the passage?
A. Oil Refining: A Historical Perspective
B. The California Gold Rush: Get Rich Quickly
C. Private Property: Trespassers Will Be Prosecuted
D Kerosene Lamps: A Light in the Tunnel
2. It can be inferred from the passage that kerosene was preferable to whale oil because whale oil was too
Passage # 2:
Air plants attach themselves to crannies in the branches of trees and lianas. Usually they put forth a fine meshwork of roots. These collect bust and plant debris, and in time create a soil of their own. Often the roots also harbor ants which help build up the soil by their wastes and dead bodies.
Water is scarce for air plants. So they adapt, like desert plants, to last through dry periods when they do, not get water. They absorb water very quickly and conserve it carefully. Some send dangling roots down through the canopy until they can take nourishment from the earth itself. Them they may grow into large and burdensome trees on top of the trees on which they started life. A few strangle their supporting tree by building their own trunks around it while others develop rosettes of overlapping leaves, which catch and hold water incidentally. These also serve as breeding places for mosquitoes, frogs, and swarms of tiny invertebrates.
3. According to the passage, how are air plants and desert plants similar
A. Both serve as breeding places for insects.
B. Both grow in the same environment.
C. Both have a fine meshwork of roots.
D. Both have ways of saving water.
4. According to the passage an air plant can be damaging to which of the following forms of life?
A. An ant
B. A mosquito
C. An orchid
D. A tree
5. Rosettes of leaves help some air plants by
A. conserving water
B. taking nourishment from the earth
C. creating soil
D. repelling harmful insects
Passage # 3:
The science of meteorology is concerned with the study of the structure, state, and behavior of the atmosphere. The subject may be approached from several directions, but the scene cannot be fully appreciated from anyone-vantage point. Different views must be integrated to give perspective to the whole picture.
One may consider the condition of the atmosphere at a given moment and attempt to predict changes from that condition over a period of a few hours to a few days ahead. This approach is covered by a branch of science called synoptic meteorology.
Synoptic meteorology is the scientific basis of the technique of weather forecasting by means of the preparation and analysis of weather maps and aero logical diagrams. The practical importance of the numerous application of weather forecasting cannot be overestimated in serving the needs of shipping, aviation, agriculture, industry and many other interests and fields of human activity with accurate weather warnings and professional forecast advice. Great benefits are reaped in the form of saving human life and property and in the form of economic advantages of various kinds. One important purpose of the science of meteorology is constantly to strive, through advanced study and research, to increase our knowledge of the atmosphere with the aim of improving the accuracy of weather forecasts.
The tools needed to advance our knowledge in this way are the disciplines of mathematics and physics applied to solve meteorological problems. The use of these tools forms a branch of science called dynamic meteorology
6. Which of the following is the best title for the passage?
A. The limitation of Meteorological Forecasting.
B. New Advances in synoptic Meteorology.
C. Approach to the science of Meteorology.
D. The Basis of Dynamic Meteorology.
7. The predictions of synoptic meteorologists are directly based on the
A. application of the physical science
B. preparation and study of weather maps
C. anticipated needs of industry
D. observation of commercial airline pilots
8. Which of the following is not referred to by the author as a field whose needs are served by weather forecasting?
9. The author implies that increased accuracy in weather forecasting will lead to•
A. more funds allocated to meteorological research
B. greater protection of human life
C. a higher number of professional forecasters
D. less specialized forms of synoptic meteorology
10. Which .of the following statements best describes the organization of the this paragraph of the passage?
A. A procedure is explained and its importance is emphasized.
B. Recent scientific advancement are outlined in order of importance
C. Two contrasting views of a problem are presented
D. A problem is examined and possible solutions are given.